We all worry about our health from time to time. Sometimes, to get rid of this anxiety, we just need to say “This will never happen to me!” Is it so? In the Gomel region, as well as throughout Belarus, diseases of the cardiovascular system are the sad leader among other diseases. And therefore the risk of getting sick is high for each person.
To reduce it, it is important, it is important to pay great attention to the heart – the main working organ of your body, to do everything possible to keep it healthy for as long as possible. And you can do a lot to help him. World Heart Day is a global health campaign. Its main task is to raise awareness about diseases of the cardiovascular system, their causes and ways to prevent them. In this publication, we tell you how to protect the main engine of our body.
How to keep your heart healthy. Six tips from a cardiologist.
When the heart is stuffy
We usually do not feel a healthy heart. It often beats only in moments of strong emotions – from fear or joy, love or hate. It echoes loudly and evenly in the ears during heavy loads – a long run, climbing a steep mountain, at the time of a parachute jump.
And if it suddenly beats for no reason, “died”, “failed somewhere”, if a sharp pain appeared in the chest, radiating to the shoulder blade, neck, teeth, the doctor to whom you describe your feelings will immediately suspect coronary disease heart (CHD). This means that your heart does not have enough oxygen, it suffocates.
What is IBS
Ischemia is a lack of blood to the heart muscle (myocardium), which acts as a pump. For the heart to work, the myocardium needs oxygen and nutrition, which blood brings to it through the coronary vessels. From the heart, the blood must carry away the “products of combustion.” If the lumen of the coronary vessels is narrowed by spasm or sclerotic deposits, there is a lack of oxygen, and there is an excess of “waste” – the myocardium begins to suffocate, weaken. It does not pump blood well, chronic heart failure occurs.
The first form of coronary artery disease is angina pectoris, in which the lumen of the coronary vessels is narrowed, but not completely. The main symptom is pain behind the sternum, radiating to the left arm, under the shoulder blade, the left side of the lower jaw, even the teeth. Angina can be stable or unstable, with exertion and even at rest.
The second form of IHD is myocardial infarction. When one (or more) of the coronary vessels become completely blocked, part of the muscle is no longer fed and oxygenated and actually dies. Further, a person’s life depends on the size of the deceased part and the speed with which doctors will help him. In Russia, myocardial infarction is the main cause of premature death. More than 600,000 Russians die from coronary artery disease every year – a whole big city.
Some risk factors
- Gender (men get sick more often than women)
- Age (the older, the higher the risk)
- Fat metabolism disorders, high cholesterol
- High blood pressure
- Carbohydrate metabolism disorder, diabetes mellitus
- Excess weight 9. Lack of movement (physical inactivity)
- Psycho-emotional overstrain, stress
How the heart works
The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump, weighing an average of 300 grams. For one contraction, it pushes 60-75 ml of blood into the vessels. During the day, the heart contracts about 100,000 times, pumping from 6000 to 7500 liters of blood or 30-37 full cast-iron baths with a capacity of 200 liters.
Blood moves in the heart in a figure-of-eight pattern: it flows from the veins into the right atrium, then the right ventricle pushes it into the lungs, where it is saturated with oxygen and returns to the left atrium. Then from the left ventricle through the arteries blood flows to all organs of the body. Nutrition and respiration of the heart itself is provided by the coronary (coronary) vessels.
Run Bunny Run
Everyone knows that lying on the couch is more harmful than walking and exercising. And why? The scientists of the Institute of Clinical Cardiology figured it out. They put the rabbits in cramped cages (almost the size of the body) and kept them motionless for 70 days. Then they looked at their hearts under an electron microscope. We saw a terrible picture. Many myofibrils, the fibers that make the muscle contract, have atrophied. The connections between cells that help them work together have been disrupted. The changes affected the nerve endings that control the muscles. The walls of the capillaries carrying blood to them began to grow inward, reducing the lumen of the vessels. Here’s your sofa!
Why people love Petrosyan and K
Dr. Michael Miller of the University of Maryland and his colleagues conducted a series of experiments by showing volunteers two films: a happy one and a sad one. And at the same time they tested the work of their hearts and blood vessels. After the tragic film, in 14 out of 20 volunteers, the blood flow in the vessels decreased by an average of 35%. And after the funny one, on the contrary, it increased by 22% in 19 out of 20 subjects.
Changes in blood vessels in laughing volunteers were similar to those that occur during aerobic exercise. But at the same time, they did not have any pain in the muscles, nor fatigue and overexertion, which often accompanies great physical exertion. Scientists have concluded that laughter reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
With a broken heart
“Broken Heart Syndrome” – such a new diagnosis has appeared in cardiology. It was first described 12 years ago by Japanese doctors. Now it is recognized in other countries. The syndrome occurs, as a rule, in women over forty who have experienced a love failure. Cardiogram and ultrasounds show them the same disorders as in a heart attack, although the coronary vessels are in order. But the level of the stress hormone – adrenaline, for example, is 2-3 times higher in them than in heart attack patients. And in comparison with healthy people, it is exceeded by 7-10, and in some cases even 30 times!
It is hormones, according to doctors, that “hit” the heart, forcing it to respond with the classic symptoms of a heart attack: pain behind the sternum, fluid in the lungs, and acute heart failure. Fortunately, patients with the new syndrome recover fairly quickly if they are treated correctly.
Why are we afraid of cancer and not afraid of a heart attack?
Director of the Institute of Cardiology of the Russian Cardiology Scientific and Practical Complex of Roszdrav, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Yuri BELENKOV:
There are two reasons, in my opinion. The first is the myth that cancer is incurable, although many types of it are now successfully treated. The second is that cardiovascular diseases last for a long time, at the initial stage with almost no symptoms. Only a part of such patients (25%) die suddenly, sometimes without even having time to “get sick”. The rest live long enough, especially if they receive modern adequate treatment. We have 50 million people suffering from coronary artery disease and hypertension – almost half of the adult population. Approximately 8 million of them are in the deadly stage. Unfortunately, at this stage, the prognosis for life is much worse than in cancer patients. But the right lifestyle, attention to yourself and timely access to doctors allow you to maintain heart health until old age.
5 Tips from a Cardiologist
Head of the State Research Center for Preventive Medicine of Roszdrav, Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Rafael Oganov:
– To keep the heart healthy for many years, you must follow a few important rules:
1: Food is Healthy
Eat greens, fruits, grains, and slow-cooked foods.
Vegetables, fruits, grains are vitamins and fiber that improve the functioning of the body as a whole, slow down the development of atherosclerosis and the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels. Fish, especially oily sea fish (trout, mackerel, mackerel, herring), are extremely rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Northern peoples, in whose menu sea fish occupies an important place, suffer from cardiovascular diseases almost 2 times less often than others. According to recent studies, regular consumption of omega-3s minimizes the risk of sudden cardiac arrest.
Exercise daily, walk, run, ride a bike.
Training helps keep all muscles in good shape, including the heart. During physical activity, glucose is processed faster, substances are consumed, which, according to the law of meanness, are deposited in the most problematic places.
There are also special aerobic exercises for the heart and blood vessels. It’s running, walking, swimming. The main condition is to practice at least 30 minutes at a time, ideally 40-50. The fitness club has cardio equipment for this: steppers (imitation of walking up the stairs), a treadmill, bicycle and elliptical trainers. If you don’t like exercise equipment – ride your bike in the park, run or just walk, ignore elevators. Watch your heart rate: during a workout, it should be 110-130 beats per minute.
Drink alcohol in moderation.
Note that this is not about the fact that alcohol should be completely abandoned. The key word is “moderation”. A glass of dry red wine a day – say, at dinner, in good company – is only good for the heart. Red wine is rich in polyphenols, powerful antioxidants found in grape seeds. According to recent research conducted at the University of Florida, moderate alcohol intake (1-7 drinks per week) reduces the risk of heart attack and stroke by 30%.
However, scientists specify: busting alcohol is much worse than complete abstinence. A safe rate is 20 g per day in terms of pure ethyl alcohol. In wine equivalent, this is a glass, in beer equivalent – 0.33 liters.
4: slim waist
To have a healthy heart, it is important to have a waist. In any case, the waist should not exceed the size of the hips, which, in turn, should fit in an average office chair.
Start by following at least one rule – and this will already help make your heart healthier. According to statistics, proper nutrition alone reduces the risk of a heart attack by 57%. Shall we start?
Jokes aside, the “correct” weight avoids numerous health problems that ultimately affect the work of the heart. Waist more than 89 cm is a real threat. A familiar teacher at the medical institute called it a “fat chain”: too much adipose tissue – relative lack of insulin – the concentration of glucose in the blood rises (type 2 diabetes occurs) – cholesterol levels rise – atherosclerosis occurs, pressure rises.
5: Cigarettes are banned
Usually, in anti-advertising of tobacco, they show soot-soaked lungs. In fact, smoking harms many other organs, especially the heart. If it were my will, I would show in the anti-advertising of tobacco a large scar left on the heart after a heart attack. According to the WHO, smoking is the second leading cause of coronary heart disease after atherosclerosis.
Some Other WAYS TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY
LOAD ON MICROELEMENTS:
The heart muscle is nourished by three trace elements – potassium, magnesium and calcium. They regulate the heart rate, lower blood pressure, remove bad cholesterol and excess fluid from the body. Include dried fruits, cereals, jacket potatoes, dairy products, cheese, sea fish, bran bread and greens in your diet.
The main vitamins for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system are B vitamins. They are involved in the regulation of contraction of the heart muscle, relieving vasospasm, normalising the blood supply to the heart, and preventing blockage of blood vessels. The best sources of B vitamins are dark green leafy vegetables and legumes (peas and green beans), fish, whole grains, soybeans, fruits and vegetables.
The high content of salt in the diet contributes to the retention of water in the tissues of the body, and this leads to an increase in blood pressure and creates an additional burden on the heart. Therefore, do not salt homemade dishes during cooking.
GET RID OF FAT:
“Bad” cholesterol damages the lining of the inner wall of the vessel, accumulates in it, resulting in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which then “harden” and clog the vessel. It is fraught with death. Therefore, give up “cholesterol” meat (pork, lamb). Give preference to veal and chicken (without the skin – it also has a lot of cholesterol).
Exclude from the diet foods and drinks that excite the central nervous system and heart: strong tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa, spicy spices. The same goes for alcohol in large quantities. All of them are provocateurs of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
LIQUIFY THE BLOOD:
When the blood is “thick”, it is difficult for it to carry nutrients to the heart cells. To avoid this, drink drinks rich in vitamin C: rosehip infusion or cranberry juice. And eat garlic, which has the same property.
Good sleep is the best way to deal with stress. For complete relaxation, take a walk before going to bed, ventilate the bedroom, drink milk with honey.
It has been established that a heart attack is more common with people in a depressed mental state. Keep in mind: if you are depressed, you risk your heart even more than a smoker. A diary is one of the cures for stress. Regular diary entries relating to the strongest emotions, innermost thoughts and feelings help to overcome the state of depression.
Women who force themselves to keep quiet during family quarrels are more likely to die prematurely, according to a new study. They are also more prone to depression and irritability syndrome. Physicians from Gaithersburg, Maryland, observed 3682 men and women. For ten years, scientists recorded their heart disease and death from any cause. It turned out that women who forced themselves to remain silent during family quarrels died 4 times more often than those who were not shy in expressions.
Why do you need to train your heart?
How to train the heart and blood vessels
The main rule that must be followed during aerobic exercise (cardio) is to control the heart rate. In this case, training gives a noticeable effect even in combination with a small anaerobic (strength) load.
How to train the heart correctly? Everything is pretty simple. When training, it is important to monitor the pulse: the indicators should reach 120-140 beats per minute and remain at the same level throughout the entire session. In this case, the volume of the heart will increase due to the stretching of the walls. If the pulse increases to 180-200 beats and stays at this level for more than 20 minutes, lactic acid is released, due to which the walls thicken. Thickening leads to the gradual death of cells and an increased risk of a heart attack, so such loads do more harm than good.
What workouts have a positive effect on the heart muscle
When choosing a sport, you need to take into account both the physical capabilities of the body and your emotional state. If the soul does not lie in any training, it is better to choose other exercises.
Useful workouts for the heart muscle:
- Walking. Most suitable for beginners. It is important not to stop for 40-60 minutes and increase your walking speed over time. From walking the heart is not overloaded even in untrained people.
- Run. You can run both in the gym and in the park, as well as at home on the spot. But, as with other types of exercise, it is important to monitor the pulse. Running may be contraindicated for overweight people.
- Swimming. Has no contraindications. You can visit the pool for overweight people and patients with diseases of the joints, spine.
- Walking up the stairs. Intense load. At first, you can climb several floors, over time you can go higher.
- Dancing. They train the heart well without overstrain and contribute to the production of endorphins, which allow you to deal with stress.
- Trainers. It is better for beginners to practice in the gym under the supervision of an instructor.
Remember that sports can be practised anywhere. It is not necessary to sign up for a gym if a large crowd of people does not allow you to relax. It is important to find a suitable place where you feel comfortable. It can be a park, street, own apartment, office. If, on the contrary, you experience anxiety from a lack of communication, team sports are suitable for you: volleyball, basketball, water aerobics. The optimal mode is 30-60 minutes of classes 3-4 times a week.
Is it possible to train the heart with heart disease
Cardiovascular disease is not a contraindication to exercise. Although it is worth clarifying that cardiac diseases are different and of varying severity, so all classes must be agreed with the doctor.
Physical activity is necessary for those who suffer from heart disease and blood vessels, as well as those who have undergone surgery, but first you need to get the opinion and permission of a cardiologist. If you experience fatigue even from minimal physical activity, you may have problems with the cardiovascular system. In this case, you should undergo an examination and refrain from exertion for a while. If you have already been diagnosed with heart disease, a consultation with a cardiologist is vital. You can undergo high-quality diagnostics and get advice from an experienced doctor at the Chekhov Vascular Center in the Moscow Region.